Tuesday, January 21, 2020


What is HDFS?
The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is one of the core Hadoop components, it is how Hadoop manages data and storage. At a high level, when you load a file into Hadoop the "name node" uses HDFS to chunk the file into blocks and it spreads those blocks of data across the worker nodes within the cluster. Each chunk of data is stored on multiple nodes (assuming the replication factor is set to > 1) for higher availability. The name node knows where each chunk of data is stored and that information is used by the job manager to allocate tasks and resources appropriately across nodes.

What is WASB?
Windows Azure Storage Blob (WASB) is an extension built on top of the HDFS APIs. The WASBS variation uses SSL certificates for improved security. It in many ways "is" HDFS. However, WASB creates a layer of abstraction that enables separation of storage. This separation is what enables your data to persist even when no clusters currently exist and enables multiple clusters plus other applications to access a single piece of data all at the same time. This increases functionality and flexibility while reducing costs and reducing the time from question to insight.
What is an Azure blob store, an Azure storage account, and an Azure container? For that matter, what is Azure again?
Azure is Microsoft's cloud solution. A cloud is essentially a collection of host data centers that you don't have to directly manage. You can request services from that cloud. For example, you can request virtual machines and storage, data services such as SQL Azure Database or HDInsight, or services such as Websites or Service Bus. In Azure you store blobs on containers within Azure storage accounts. You grant access to a storage account, you create collections at the container level, and you place blobs (files of any format) inside the containers. This illustration from Microsoft's documentation helps to show the structure:
How do I manage and configure block/chunk size and the replication factor with WASB?
You don't. It's not generally necessary. The data is stored in the Azure storage accounts, remaining accessible to many applications at once. Each blob (file) is replicated 3x within the data center. If you choose to use geo-replication on your account you also get 3 copies of the data in another data center within the same region. The data is chunked and distributed to nodes when a job is run. If you need to change the chunk size for memory related performance at run time that is still an option. You can pass in any Hadoop configuration parameter setting when you create the cluster or you can use the SET command for a given job.
Isn't one of the selling points of Hadoop that the data sits with the compute? How does that work with WASB?
Just like with any Hadoop system the data is loaded into memory on the individual nodes at compute time (when the job runs). The difference with WASB is that the data is loaded from the storage accounts instead of from local disks. Given the way Azure data center backbones are built the performance is generally the same or better than if you used disks locally attached to the VMs.

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